Nucleases are the enzyme, used to cleave DNA into smaller units. Zinc-finger (ZFN) nucleases are artificial restriction enzyme used to cleave DNA into smaller fragments. It is the class of engineered DNA-binding proteins that creates double standard break at specified locations. It consist of two functional domain, a DNA-binding domain, and a DNA-cleaving domain. DNA binding domain recognizes the unique hexamer sequence of DNA and DNA-cleaving domain consisting nuclease domain of Fok I. The fusion between the DNA-binding domain, and a DNA-cleaving domain creates artificial restriction enzyme known as molecular scissor that cleaves the desired DNA sequence. ZFN is based on the DNA repair machinery and is becoming a prominent tool in the field of genome editing.
Zinc finger nucleases are useful for various biotechnological and life science applications. It is used to manipulate plants and animals for research purpose and is used in the clinical trial of CD4+ human T-cells for the treatment of AIDS. It is also used in the generation of disease model known as isogenic human disease model. The therapeutic approach involving ZFNs is associated with the problems related to viral gene delivery, ex vivo therapy involving own stem cells. Some of the disadvantages of the zinc finger nuclease technology is that sometimes cannot target the specific site, within the gene of interest and creates many double standard break and yield chromosomal rearrangements, which can lead to cell death and risk of immunological response against the therapeutic agent.
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The rise in the incidence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, blood pressure, obesity and others due to sedentary lifestyle has led to the excessive research and development for the development of new therapeutic agent to treat various disease condition. Benefits of Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) includes permanent and heritable mutations, are effective for the variety of mammalian somatic cell types, single transfection is enough to induce editing in gene, antibiotic screening is not required for selection. These benefits has helped researched to carry out their research process easily with limited accessories.
Zinc finger nuclease will be the core technology for biotechnology companies in coming years due to its wide applications such as cell screening, cell based optimization, target validation, functional genome editing to produce higher yield of target proteins, antibodies and others. Well- established, robust protocol using zinc finger nuclease technology will deliver accurate results and boost the market of zinc finger nuclease technology in the near future.
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The global market zinc finger nuclease technology is segmented on basis of application, end user and geography:
Segment by Application
- Cell Line Engineering
- Animal Genetic Engineering
- Plant Genetic Engineering
Segment by End User
- Biotechnology Companies
- Pharmaceutical Companies
- Hospital Laboratory and Diagnostic Laboratory
- Academic and Research Institutes
The global market for zinc finger nuclease technology is segmented into application type and end user. Based on the application type, the zinc finger nuclease market is segmented into cell line engineering, animal genetic engineering, plant genetic engineering, Based on the end user, the market is segmented into biotechnology industry, pharmaceutical company, hospital and diagnostic laboratory, academic and research institutes. Due to technological advantage of ZFN technology over other genome editing technologies, high precision, specificity, and efficacy of the zinc finger technology has projected to the growth of the zinc finger technology market in the near future
By regional presence, the global zinc finger nuclease technology market is segmented into five broad regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa. North America is estimated to account for major share followed by European countries. Mainly the U.S. & European markets, owing to its innate nature of developed healthcare infrastructure, adopts advanced technology at early stage as compared to developing economies, high pricing of drugs/medical devices/technology, increase in incidence of lifestyle diseases, that follows large patient pool etc. is estimated to maintain its leadership geographically . Significant economic development has led to an increase in healthcare availability in Asia Pacific region, growing number of research institutes, laboratories, investment in research and development and penetration of global players in Asia is expected to fuel demand for gene editing technologies such as zinc finger nuclease technology for research and development, advancement in the diagnostic and treatment process.
Some of the major players in zinc finger nuclease technology are Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC., Sangamo Therapeutics, Inc. OriGene Technologies, Inc., Labomics, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and others. Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC is a part of Merck Inc. and operated life science business and has reached various geographies to fulfill customer needs. Sangamo Therapeutics, Inc. has developed range of gene editing technologies with therapeutic approach. Many life sciences company and large pharmaceutical company are collaborating to develop and commercialize gene editing technologies to introduce advanced life science products
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